Psychological Approach of Development: David Mc Clelland (Point of View)

Psychological Approach of Development : David Mc Clelland

हिंदी अनुवाद के लिए यहां क्लिक करें

  • Social structure is made from the individuals who operate and maintain them. Individuals have attitudes and values that have casual roles.
  • This approach believes that attitude and value changes are prerequisites to creating a modern society, economy, and political system.
  • Instead of social structures, more stress is led to ways of thinking and feeling.
  • This approach successfully explained the reason why countries like India, China, etc. are still developing countries. Despite having enormous wealth with ancient civilization.


In his book; Mc Clelland said, “It is values, motives or psychological forces that determine ultimately the rate of economic and social development….”

  • According to him, for economic development, for shaping history ideas are in fact more important than purely materialistic arrangements.
  • This approach of Mc Clelland is known as “PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH” because development and modernization have been seen as a function of mental structure.Psychological Approach of Development : David Mc Clelland
  • According to him; rapid changes, modernization, and development of the economy is the result of some specific thinking patterns in a particular direction which leads to economic development.
  • With the example of Historical facts; He explains that groups with rigid viewpoints and attitudes fail to achieve development in comparison to a group with flexible attitudes… such attitudes include some specific characteristics such as:
    • Encouragement
    • Enthusiasm
    • Efficiency achievement motivation as a desire to accomplish difficult tasks and to meet standards of excellence.
  • This achievement motive further leads to a difference in the development of several groups.
  • Achievement motivation could take place because of religious superiority, minority, etc. or we can say that because of any reason to do better in comparison to others.
  • He indicates that such kind of attitude, motivation, and thinking pattern – could be induced as a mental virus to guide the people towards development anxiously.

There are two components of attitude and motivation suitable for development which is as follows: –

  1. Need for achievement:

    • It refers to “Doing something better, more efficiently, more quickly with less labor and with a better result.” This is also known as “ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVE”
    • This need motivates people to work more efficiently with more skill and better arrangement. Logically in comparison to earlier along with continuous modifications and modernization of traditional working methods that could lead to better results.
  1. Sense of social responsibility and concern for the welfare of others (Need for social welfare):

    • According to Mc Clelland: For development and modernization. ‘Achievement motive’ only is not sufficient but concern for other’s progress, for the welfare of the whole society is also necessary.
    • Because of the presence of achievement motive could lead to anti-social activities also as capital accumulation, black marketing, social and economic exploitation, etc.
    • But the sense of social responsibility or social welfare extend development. Progress to the whole society rather than a single individual through several activities such as: –
        • Donation
        • Loan
        • Government policies
        • Social works etc.

In this way, Mc Clelland indicates two components of motivation for development:

    • Firstly, Achievement motivation in the form of personal virtue.
    • Secondly, social welfare orientation in the form of social virtue.

Both could be induced among people; through training programs, for attaining better levels of development. So not only physical or materialistic wealth but people’s motivations, ambitions, goals, attitudes, etc. are important for a group’s development.

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Psychological Approach of Development : David Mc Clelland 2019 Views of Mc Clelland Psychological Approach of Development Social structure Attitudes and Values Casual roles Prerequisites Modern society Economic system Political system Ways of thinking and Feeling Developing countries The Achieving society Values Votives Psychological forces Social development History Materialistic arrangements Thinking patterns Skill encouragement Efficiency Achievement motivation Need for achievement Need for social welfare Conclusion

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