Methods of Treating Delinquents (हिंदी में पढ़ने के लिए यहां क्लिक करें)
Methods of Treating Delinquents
Punishment is not discussed as a treatment method because it is no longer viewed as a viable technique of treatment, though some do feel that pain serves as a deterrent to further criminal activity. Restrictions and reprimands can be effective supplements to the major treatment approach utilized but punishment cannot become an end in itself.
Some important method is as follows-
- 1. Psychotherapy
- 2. Reality therapy
- 3. Behavior therapy
- 4. Activity therapy
- 5. Milieu therapy
The two basic approaches and dealing with youngsters are-
- 1. The individual method of treatment
- 2. The group method of treatment.
Sociologists usually take a ‘social engineering’ approach to Delinquency. That is the deal with the conditions of the social structure that breed delinquency, while the psychologist treats the individual and emphasizes his interpersonal dynamics. The profession of social work is the ‘practical arm’ of the sociologist (Trojanowicz, 1973). As such, the above-mentioned 5 methods are generally utilized by psychologists, Psychiatrists, and Social workers. So here are the five methods of treating delinquents.
- It treats emotional and personality problems by psychological means, that is, by changing the attitudes and feelings about significant persons in the client(delinquents) past.
- When the early relationship of a younger sister with his parents was not satisfactory.
- The delinquent is allowed by the therapist to operate in an atmosphere of love and acceptance where the person does not have to fear the severe rejection of physical punishment.
- This is due to the transference established in which the client and the therapist feel comfortable in exchanging communication.
- Thus, therapy involves facilitating the solving of conflicts and providing positive alternatives to behavior adaptation by the client.
2. Reality therapy
- It is based on the view that people, unable to fulfill their basic needs, act in an irresponsible manner.
- The object of reality therapy is to help the delinquent person in a responsible manner, that is, refrain from the antisocial activity.
- This therapy can be given by anyone because it does not emphasizes nebulous psychiatric terms, extensive testing, or time-consuming case conferences.
- This method differs from the psychotherapy method in the sense that the latter is concerned with past behavior, while this is concerned with the present behavior.
- Whereas the basis of psychotherapy is that a person cannot change his present behavior a less he clearly ties it to the events in the past, the basis of reality therapy is that the past is insignificant.
3. Behavior therapy
- It modifies the learned behavior of the Delinquents Through the development of new learning processes. Behavior can be changed throw positive or negative reinforcement that is is rewards or punishment.
- Negative or unpleasant reinforcement like restrictions will reduce negative behavior while positive or pleasant reinforcement will increase positive behavior like success on the job and in the school.
- This requires determining each individual ‘reinforces’ that is, 2000 specs that the individual will strive to achieve the gain of personal satisfaction.
- For modifying behavior, both the reinforces can be employed.
4. Activity therapy
- Many children do not have the verbal ability to communicate effectively in a conventional individual or group situation.
- The atmosphere is permissive and the youngsters use their time as they wish.
- Thus, moderately neurotic child finds great release in a permissive environment where he can express his hostility and aggression in creative work, play or mischief.
- Because his behavior does not call for retaliation, punishment or disapproval, pent-up emotions find appropriate discharge.
5. Milieu or environment therapy
- It attempts to produce an environment that will facilitate meaningful change and satisfactory adjustment.
- This is used for persons whose deviant behavior is a reaction to unfavorable life conditions.
Besides using the above methods, three more methods are also used in the treatment of juvenile Delinquents, these are as follows-
- 1. Social casework
- 2. Individual counseling
- 3. Vocational counseling
1. Social casework
- It is assisting the maladjusted youngster in coping with his problems.
- Although similar to psychotherapy in many respects, technically social casework is different from psychotherapy.
- Whereas social caseworker, could be a probation officer, prison counselor, mental health worker, or hospital social worker, a psychotherapist is essentially a doctor by profession.
- The caseworker prepares the case history of the client to explore his background, environment, and relationships with his family, friends, school fellows, etc. and evaluates his personal strengths and weaknesses so that a treatment plan can be devised and carried out.
- This method, however, often does not succeed with delinquents because, on the one hand, it is difficult to obtain the delinquents’ cooperation as he has no trust in the caseworker and on the other hand that delinquents family also resists and feels threatened by the caseworker probing.
2. Individual counseling
- Re-educating a delinquent to enable him to understand his immediate situation and solve his problem.
3. Vocational counseling
- Increasing the delinquent’s knowledge of his career choices, job specifications and qualifications and training needed for successful employment.
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