Juvenile Courts (हिंदी में पढ़ने के लिए यहां क्लिक करें)
Juvenile Court is a court of justice having special authority to pass judgment for crimes that are committed by children who have not attained the age of majority. In most modern legal systems, children or teens who commit a crime are treated differently from legal adults that have committed the same offense.
Juvenile courts have been established in some States to try and convict specifically juvenile Delinquents. the first juvenile court was established in Calcutta in 1922, followed by Bombay in 1927 and by Madras in 1930. Since then, some more States have also created such courts. the methods used by the juvenile course are quite different from those used by the adult criminal courts.
Generally, the presiding magistrates of these courts female magistrates. Police officers in official uniforms are not permitted in these courts. In trial also, complete secrecy is maintained. members of the public are not permitted to be present at the settings of the juvenile courts, except by special permission. Lawyers are not entitled to appear in any case before the juvenile courts.
However, if the juvenile courts are of the opinion that in the public interest, the appearance of a legal practitioner is necessary. He is authorized to appear in an ordinary dress in particular cases. The conviction by this court does not affect the trial for another crime in some other Court.
The main features of the juvenile courts are:
- The informality of procedure
- De-emphasis on deterrent or retributive justice
- Protection and rehabilitation of juveniles
- Use of socialized treatment measures
Structurally, these are an integral part of the judicial hierarchy, is all appeals from them, are forwarded to higher adult courts.
Methods used for the disposal of cases by them generally are:
- Restoring delinquents to guardians
- Release after admonition
- Imposition of fine
- Release on probation
- Commitment to reformatories
- Schools and borstal
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