Ideal Typical Approach to Development by Hoselitz

Ideal Typical Approach to Development Views of Hoselitz Approaches to development The sociological aspects of economic growth Four pattern variables Self-orientation Particularism Diffuseness Ascription Collectivity-orientation Universalism Specificity Achievement Traditional societies Modern societies Developed country Undeveloped country Value system Development Technological innovations Breaking up of the traditional mould Opening of new and broader markets Conclusion

Ideal Typical Approach to Development

  • Hoselitz explains the social structural aspect of economic growth in his book : –

          (THE SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH – 1960).

  • According to Hoselitz: – ” The process of development does not occur in a vacuum but it happens into the social structure.”
  • Society is organized according to some values and patterns. These values and patterns define and regulate human relationships, decisions, and actions.
  • A specific kind of value system is required for the fast economic development of the five pattern variables given by Talcott Parsons.
  • Hoselitz utilizes the four of them and saw them in the form of social or national value systems of which one alternate group works as a hindrance to development while other works as supportive of development.

Value system of traditional Societies Adverse to Development

Value system of Modern Societies Congenial to Development

⇒Self-Orientation ⇒Collectivity Orientation
⇒Particularism ⇒Universalism
⇒Diffuseness ⇒Specificity
⇒Ascription ⇒Achievement

  • In this way, Hoselitz indicates two pattern systems or social structural patterns of the two and pattern system is adverse to development.
  • (Self-Orientation+Particularism+Diffuseness+Ascription)

  • It is adopted by Traditional societies that are less developed socially and economically.
  • Second pattern system is adopted by developed countries (Collectively-Orientation+Universalism+Specificity+Achievement)
  • This pattern was seen by Hoselitz as an ideal-typical approach to the development of a value-based system congenial to the development
  • He also indicates that if underdeveloped or developing countries adopt this pattern and leave the value systems of traditional societies.
  • They could also be made on the path of development.

Here, we discuss the meaning of different patterns which are as follows: –

Traditional Society Modern Society
1. Self-Orientation: – Emphasis on personal interest during performing an action, this is not helpful in development. Collectively- Orientation: – Emphasis on the collective interest or interest of the whole group during an action.
2. Particularism: – Importance given to people’s caste, religion, gender etc. in the process of evaluation. Universalism: – Evaluation on the basis of equality and justice.
3. Diffuseness: – Allotment of economic roles according to traditionally assigned statuses to the people in the social structure without given importance to their personal abilities and interest. Specificity: – Allotment of economic roles on the basis of people’s specific interest, abilities and talents. This is a characteristic of developed societies.
4. Ascription: – Traditional societies assign a status to its people by birth. People in such normally do not strive for achievement. Achievement: – Assign status on the basis of achievement gained by its people. Achievement is the normative behaviour pattern which prevails in economically advanced societies.
  • For Rapid development, some of the specific qualities such as actions and attitudes are required such as free, competition, extended cooperation and assistance, distribution of responsibilities and allotment of work on the basis of abilities, work efficiency, specification etc.

         According to Hoselitz: –

  • The social structural pattern of traditional countries is an obstacle for development.
  • On the other hand, the value pattern of developed countries is seen as an ideal pattern, which is, if adopted by traditional countrues that they can move faster towards the goal of development.
  • This value-pattern is helpful in creating a supportive attitude for development.
  • We may conclude from the parsonians parameters that society moves on the path of development if it honours status achieved by individuals not bestowed upon them by birth assigns economic roles to individuals who deserve and not the one specifically decided by tradition and honours universalistic principles.
  • V.M DEAN wrote in his article “THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS” in his book “THE UNDERDEVELOPED LANDS “ edited by “PENTONY”, about the role of social, cultural factors in development.
  • DEAN wrote that economic development does not occur in a political, social and cultural vacuum, neither that requires supportive development is dependent upon these factors.
  • According to DEAN, there are three important factors which are as follows: –

      • TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS
      • BREAKING UP OF THE TRADITIONAL MOULD
      • OPENING OF NEW AND BROADER MARKETS

Technological factors: –

    •  Modernization and modification of techniques is a necessary factor for development. It improves the production process.

Breaking up of the traditional mould: –

    • It is necessary for breaking up of the traditional economic and social frameworks from the impact of modernization for development.

Opening of new and broader markets: –

    • Opening of new and extended markets inside and outside the country.
    • These markets are necessary for the : –
      • Consumption of surplus production
      • It opens the new horizons
      • Increases the national income

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